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PASSAGE 06


🚩 Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 1 to 10.


Very few people in the modern world obtain their food supply by hunting and gathering in the natural environment surrounding their homes. This method of harvesting from nature's provision is the oldest known subsistence strategy and has been practised for at least the last two million years. It was, indeed, the only way to obtain food until rudimentary farming and the domestication of wild animals were introduced about 10,000 years ago.


Because hunter - gatherers have fared poorly in comparison with their agricultural cousins, their numbers have dwindled, and they have been forced to live in marginal environments, such as deserts and arctic wastelands. In higher latitudes, the shorter growing seasons have restricted the availability of plant life. Such conditions have caused a greater dependence on hunting, and on fishing along the coast and waterways. The abundance of vegetation in the lower latitudes of the tropics, on the other hand, has provided a greater opportunity for gathering a variety of plants. In short, the environmental differences have restricted the diet and have limited possibilities for the development of subsistence societies.


Contemporary hunter- gatherers may help us understand our prehistoric ancestor. We know from the observation of modern hunter- gatherers in both Africa and Alaska that a society based on hunting and gathering must be very mobile. While the entire community camps in a central location, a smaller party harvests the food within a reasonable distance from the camp. When the food in the are has become exhausted, the community moves on to exploit another site. We also notice seasonal migration patterns evolving for most hunter- gatherers, along with a strict division of labor between the sexes. These patterns of behavior may be similar to those practised by mankind during the Paleolithic Period.

(Đề tuyển sinh đại học năm 2009)



Question 1: The word "domestication" in the first paragraph mostly means ___________.

A. adapting animals to suit a new working environment

B. hatching and raising new species of wild animals in the home

C. teaching animals to do a particular job or activity in the home

D. making wild animals used to living with and working for humans


Question 2: According to the passage, subsistence societies depend mainly on _________.

A. hunter- gatherers' tools

B. nature's provision

C. farming methods

D. agricultural products


Question 3: The word "marginal" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to "_________".

A. disadvantaged

B. suburban

C. forgotten

D. abandoned


Question 4: In the lower latitudes of the tropics, hunter- gatherers __________.

A. can free themselves from hunting

B. have better food gathering from nature

C. live along the coasts and waterways for fishing

D. harvest shorter seasonal crops


Question 5: According to the passage, studies of contemporary subsistence societies can provide a __________.

A. further understanding of prehistoric times

B. broader vision of prehistoric natural environments

C. further understanding of modern subsistence societies

D. deeper insight into the dry- land farming


Question 6: The word "conditions" in the second paragraph refer to __________.

A. the places where plenty of animals and fish can be found

B. the situation in which hunter- gatherers can grow some crops

C. the environments where it is not favorable for vegetation to grow

D. the situations in which hunter- gatherers hardly find anything to eat


Question 7: A typical feature of both modern and prehistoric hunter- gatherers is that ______.

A. they live in the forest for all their life

B. they don't have a healthy and balanced diet

C. they don't have a strong sense of community

D. they often change their living places


Question 8: According to the passage, which of the following is NOT mentioned?

A. Harvesting from the natural environment had existed long before farming was taken up

B. The environmental differences produce no effect on subsistence societies.

C. The number of hunter- gatherers decreases where farming is convenient

D. Hunting or fishing develops where there are no or short growing seasons.


Question 9: According to the author, most contemporary and prehistoric hunter- gatherers share _______.

A. some methods of production

B. some patterns of behavior

C. some restricted daily rules

D. only the way of duty division


Question 10: Which of the following would serve as the best title of the passage ?

A. Hunter- gatherers and Subsistence Societies

B. Evolution of Humans' Farming Methods

C. A Brief History of Subsistence Farming

D. Hunter- gatherers: Always on the Move


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